The Roman Calendar

By Roman calendar it is meant that the calendar scheme existed before Julian Calendar. The Roman calendar comprises of ten months of a year which was amounting to 304 days. The Romans did not consider the 2 months of the later Winter Season as part of their calendar. Romulus, The founder of Rome has been attributed to the establishment of the Roman Calendar.

The Roman Calendar during reign of Romulus had the following months:

Month of Romulus Calendar Number of Days Etymology Meaning
Ianuarius 29 inanua God of Beginnings, Transitions, and Endings
Februarius 28 februum Religious purification
Martius 31 days Mars Meaning the god of war
Aprilis 30 days Aperire to open: Earth opens to receive seed
Maius 31 days Maia Goddess of growth
Iunius 30 days Maia Goddess of growth
Quintilis 31 days quinque five
Sextilis 30 days sexsix
September 30 days septemseven
October 31 days octoeight
November 30 days novemnine
December 30 days decemten

Later the Roman calendar was modified by Numa Pompilius. This version of the Roman calendar had 355 days with January having 29 days and February with 28 days. With this scheme the months which had 30 days earlier, became 29 days in duration. To align with solar year a leap month of short duration was added after February 23.

The practice of adding the leap day as February 29, is still followed in the Gregorian calendar which is currently followed across the world.

Roman Calendar as Modified by Numa Pompilius:

Later this was modified by Julius Caesar to form the Julian Calendar. © 2019